Colorectal Cancer

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What is Colorectal cancer?

Colon cancer and rectal cancer seldom are grouped and called colorectal cancer. Not including skin cancers. Colorectal cancer begins with the growth of pre-cancerous polyps from the wall of the colon and rectum. These cancers can also be called colon cancer or rectal cancer, depending on where they begin. Colon cancer and rectal cancer are usually grouped because they have several things in common. Colorectal cancers are the most usual type of cancer in India

What are the colon and rectum?

Colon and rectum are the parts of the huge intestine, which is the deepest part of the digestive system. The colon is about 5 feet long and receives water from the stool.

The rectum is the last 12 cm (almost 5 inches) of the colon, where the body stocks stool until you have a bowel action.

Types of Colorectal Cancer

More than 95% of colorectal cancers are adenocarcinomas. Nearly 90% of colorectal adenocarcinomas started as adenomas, which are a type of polyp that may become cancer.

About 20% of colorectal cancers are acquired or are connected with a strong history of colorectal cancer in the family. The types of colon cancer that are derived include:

  • Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome or HNPCC (also called Lynch syndrome), accounts for 5% to 7% of colon cancers.
  • Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) causes 100 to 1000 of polyps in the GI tract. FAP may occur during childhood.

Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors

Anything that improves your possibility of getting Colorectal cancer is a risk factor. Colorectal Cancer risk factors include:

  • Family history of Colorectal Cancer or polyps.
  • Genetic cancer symptoms such as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer symptoms or familial adenomatous polyposis.
  • Incendiary bowel condition.
  • Shortage of exercise.
  • Diet: processed meats or meats cooked at very high heat, you may be at higher risk for colon cancer.
  • Diabetes Type 2 – If you have diabetes and insulin resistance may have an enhanced risk of Colorectal Cancer.
  • Cigarette smoking – If you have smoked cigarettes for a high time you are more likely to grow and die from colorectal cancer.
  • Heavy intake of alcohol may raise your chance of colon cancer.

Colorectal Cancer Types

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    symptoms of Colorectal Cancer

    What are the symptoms of Colorectal Cancer?

    Colorectal cancer usually does not have signs in the early stages. Most colon cancers begin as polyps, small non-cancerous growths on the colon wall that can grow bigger and become destructive. As polyps or cancers develop, they can reduce or block the intestines

    Signs of colorectal cancer may include:

    • Rectal bleeding
    • Blood in the stool after a bowel action
    • Diarrhea or illness that does not end.
    • A change in size or form of stool
    • Trouble or urge to have a bowel action when there is no need
    • Abdominal pain or cramping pain in your lower abdomen
    • Bloating
    • Change in taste
    • Weight loss without dieting
    • Weariness

    These signs usually do not mean you have colorectal cancer. But if you see one or more of them for more than two weeks, consult your doctor.

    How can it be diagnosed

    The signs of colorectal cancer normally appear only with advanced disease. If your doctor finds something different in screening or you have any of the signs of colorectal cancer, further tests will be required to diagnose the condition.

    • Digital rectal exam (DRE): The doctor enters a gloved finger into the rectum to sense for polyps or other difficulties.
    • Fecal occult blood test (FOBT): This test takes- finds blood in the stool.
    • Fecal immunochemical test (FIT): This test takes- finds blood proteins in the stool.
    • Endoscopic tests, which may include:
    • Colonoscopy: A longer version of a sigmoidoscope, a colonoscope can view at the entire colon.
    • Biopsy: Tissue biopsy is used during colonoscopy from any suspicious region. A tiny piece of tissue is removed with a special tool passed through the scope. The sample is sent to the pathology lab for examination by a pathologist who looks for cancer cells in the specimen.

    Genetic tests may also be done on the biopsy specimens to recognize specific gene mutations in the cancer cells. These examinations are available at very few centers in the country

    • Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS): An endoscope is entered into the rectum. A probe at the end bounces high-energy sound waves off abdominal organs to make a picture. Also called endosonography.

    Imaging Tests

    Imaging tests, which may include:

    • CT or CAT (computed axial tomography) scan
    • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan
    • PET/CT (positron emission tomography) scan
    • Virtual colonoscopy or CT (computed tomography) colonoscopy
    • Double-contrast barium enema (DCBE): Barium is a chemical that provides the bowel wall to show up on an X-ray. A barium solution is given by enema, and then a set of X-rays is taken.
    • Blood test for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA): CEA is a protein, or tumor marker, made by some harmful tumors. This examination also can be used to see out if the tumor is developing or has come back after treatment.

    Stages of Colorectal Cancer

    Stage 0 or Carcinoma in situ:

    Irregular cells are located in the inner lining of the colon or rectal wall.

    Stage I:

    In this stage, cancer has formed in the mucosa (innermost layer) and has grown to the submucosa (layer of tissue under the mucosa) and tissue layer of colon or rectum. It has not grown into nearby tissue or lymph nodes

    Stage II: 

    Cancer has spread through the wall of the colon or rectum to the lining of the stomach, called the visceral peritoneum and has expanded into nearby structures. It has not developed to the nearby lymph nodes or outside.

    Stage III:

    Cancer has spread through the inner lining or into the tissue layers of the gut and spread to lymph nodes, but not to other different parts of the body

    Stage IV:

    Cancer has spread to a different part of the body, such as the liver or lungs.

    Treatment options for colorectal cancer

    Your colon cancer treatment at Prolife may include one or more of the following therapies:

    1. Surgery

    Surgery is the most usual treatment for colon cancer, especially if it has not developed. As for many cancers, surgery for colon cancer is most successful when done by a surgeon with a great deal of knowledge in the procedure.

    • Laparoscopic surgery: Laparoscopic surgery The word “laparoscopy” means to look inside the abdominal hole with a special camera or scope. To do a laparoscopy, between 3 and 6 small (5-10 mm) cuts are made in the stomach. The laparoscope and special laparoscopic tools are entered through these small holes. The surgeon is then guided by the laparoscope, which gives a picture of the intestinal organs on a video monitor.
    • Polypectomy: A colonoscopy, which is a large tube with a camera on the end, is entered into the rectum and guided to the polyp. A tiny, scissor-like device or wire loop removes the polyp.
    • Colectomy: The region of the colon where the cancer is, along with some healthy surrounding muscle, is removed. The associated lymph nodes are removed and looked at under a scope. Usually, the doctor then rejoins the sections of the colon. This operation also is called a hemicolectomy or partial colectomy.
    1. Chemotherapy

    Prolife offers the most up-to-date and effective chemotherapy choices for colorectal cancer. Drugs are given by mouth or intravenously

    1. Targeted therapy

    Targeted therapy targets cancer’s specific genes, proteins, or the tissue conditions that add to cancer growth and survival. Targeted therapy blocks the increase and spread of cancer cells while restricting the damage to normal cells.

    1. Radiation therapy

    Radiation therapy uses strong energy sources, such as X-rays and protons, to kill cancer cells. It might be used to withdraw large cancer before an operation so that it can be removed more quickly.

    When surgery isn’t an option, radiation therapy might be used to reduce signs, such as pain. Sometimes radiation is mixed with chemotherapy.

    Colorectal Cancer Statistics

    Colorectal Cancer Statistics

    Colorectal cancer is the 3rd most usually occurring cancer in men and the 2nd most usually occurring cancer in women. There were over 1.8 million new cases, colorectal cancer in 2018.

    The Constant Update & research says eating processed meat, red meat, and alcoholic drinks, higher body obesity and adult attained a height to raise the risk of colorectal cancer. There was also clear evidence that exercise is protective against colorectal cancer specifically and that whole grains, foods, including dietary fiber, dairy products, and calcium supplements & proteins decrease the risk of colorectal cancer.

    After Treatment: Reconstruction and Rehabilitation

    Healing from Surgery

    Most people who have colon cancer surgery heal without any problems. These people go home within 2-to-4 days. A fewer number of patients may have a slower recovery and need to wait for a little more.

    A surgeon will give you guidance on how to take care of yourself, including your surgery, bathing, driving, and sexual activity. There will be information about yourself:

    • Diet
    • Exercise
    • Pain medicine
    • Bowel movements

    After Treatment, you will be given a Daily Goals Checklist. Use that checklist to understand how you are doing every day.

    Your Daily Goals Checklist

    While you are in the hospital, you will have regular aims to help you recover. These aims include:

    • Getting out of bed and being active
    • Eating and drinking
    • Controlling your pain

    Follow-up appointments

    After you’ve completed your treatments for colorectal cancer, follow-up care is very essential. Routine checkups can help find any changes in your health, and if cancer comes back (or “recurs”), it can be treated as soon as possible.

    Why choose Prolife Cancer Centre for Your Colorectal Cancer Care?

    At Prolife Cancer Center, your colorectal cancer treatment is personalized to give the best results, while concentrating on your quality of life. We offer minimally invasive laparoscopic surgeries that provide successful treatment with less impact on you.

    Specialized Colorectal Cancer Treatments

    If chemotherapy is needed to treat Colorectal Cancer, Prolife offers unique options. Our globally renowned team of physicians shows your treatment for the most benefit while reducing the impact on your body.

    Dr. Sumit Shah is expertise in treating stage 4 colorectal cancer that has spread to other sections of the body. We offer chemotherapy and targeted therapy options, as well as a Laparoscopic surgery program.