Prostate Cancer : Prevention and screening
If you are imagining about being screened, learn about the feasible advantages and outrages of screening, diagnosis, and treatment, and talk to your surgeon about risk factors.
Prevention and screening: There is no usual test to screen for prostate cancer. Two common tests that are used to screen for prostate cancer are:
1. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test
A blood test called a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test contains the level of PSA in the blood. PSA is a subject made by the prostate. Men have higher levels of PSA in the blood. The PSA level may also be raised in other states that affect the prostate.
It is said that the higher the PSA level in the blood, the more likely a prostate issue. But many conditions, such as age and family, can influence PSA levels. Some prostate glands make more PSA than others.
PSA levels also can be affected by—
- Certain medical methods
- Certain medicines
- An increased prostate
- A prostate infection
Your doctor is the best person to evaluate your PSA test results. If the PSA test is unusual, your doctor may suggest a biopsy to find out if you have prostate cancer
2. Digital Rectal Examination (DRE)
In Digital rectal examination (DRE) a healthcare expert inserts a gloved, greased finger into a man’s rectum to feel the prostate for anything abnormal, such as cancer. It is stated that DRE does not recommend a screening test because of lack of proof on the benefits.
Benefits and Harms of Screening
- Men who are 55 to 69 years old should make own choices about being screened for prostate cancer with a prostate specific antigen (PSA) test.
- Before concluding, men should talk to their personal doctor about the profits and harms of screening for prostate cancer, including the profits and harms of additional/different tests and treatment.
- Men who are 70 or more than 70 years old should not be chosen prostate cancer tests.
The goal of screening for prostate cancer is to find cancer glans that may be at high risk for developing if not handled and to find them quickly before they grew. Though, most prostate cancers develop gradually or not at all.
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Possible Benefits of Screening
- Finding prostate cancer cells that may be at high risk of developing, so that they can be managed before they developed. This may decrease the chances of death from prostate cancer in some people (usually in men).
- Some people (men) prefer to know if they have prostate cancer.
Possible Harm from Screening
Possible Harm from Screening
False-positive test results: This occurs when a man has an unusual PSA test but does not have prostate cancer. False-positive test results often lead to additional tests, like a biopsy of the prostate. They may cause men to trouble about their health. Older men are more apt to have false-positive test results.
Possible Harms from Diagnosis
Treatment of men who would not have had signs or died from prostate cancer can cause them to have difficulties from medication, but not help from medication. This is called over diagnosis.
Prostate cancer is diagnosed with a prostate biopsy. In a biopsy, a small piece of tissue is extracted from the prostate to check the cancer cells with the help of microscope. Elder people are more likely to have difficulty after a prostate biopsy. It can cause
- Blood in the semen or ejaculate
Possible Harms from Treatment
- Urinary incontinence (unexpected leakage of urine)
- Erectile dysfunction (impotence)
- Bowel problems, including fecal desire (accidental leakage of bowel movements)
Preventing Prostate Cancer
Till now, there is no data that proves you can prevent prostate cancer. Yet, you may be able to reduce the risk.
A diet that supports a normal weight may decrease the risk for prostate cancer. Some dieticians suggested:
- Limiting high-fat foods
- Cutting back on red meats, especially processed meats such as hot dogs and several lunch meats
- Consuming five or more portions of fruits and vegetables each day
- Healthy food supplies also hold whole-grain breads and cereals, rice, pasta, and beans.
Antioxidants in foods, particularly in fruits and vegetables, help limited harm to the DNA in the body’s cells. Lycopene is an antioxidant that has been thought to lower the risk of prostate cancer. It can be found in foods such as:
- Tomatoes (raw and cooked)
Researchers studying so many ways to lower prostate cancer risk. Here are some examples of what’s being considered:
- Some doctors are looking at whether certain medicines are used to treat an enlarged prostate that isn’t cancerous, can help stop prostate cancer.
- Vitamins, such as selenium and vitamin E, may lower the chance of getting prostate cancer.
- Doctors studying the effects of supplements on prostate cancer.
Testing for Prostate Cancer
It is done to provide earlier detection. Still, experts disagree on when and if this testing should be done.
Doctors suggested to talk to the personal doctor before any kind of test for prostate cancer. Men need to know the chances of benefits of testing. Man and doctor can decide whether to continue with the PSA test and digital rectal exam.