Lung cancer, esophageal cancer, and mesothelioma are 3 of the most usual types of thoracic cancer. Lung cancer is the leading reason of cancer death in the United States. Nearly 90 percent of lung cancer is created by smoking. Esophageal cancer can occur in any portion of the esophagus, increasing to your lymph nodes, and nearby organs. Mesothelioma is different, but it occurs in the layer of cells known as the mesothelium that preserves many organs within the chest and stomach.
Your esophagus is the pipe that takes food from your throat to your abdomen. Esophageal cancer can occur in any portion of the esophagus, spreading to your lymph nodes, and nearby organs.
Lung cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the lungs. Your lungs are 2 wet organs in your chest that take in oxygen when you breathe and release carbon dioxide when you exhale. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in all over the world. In India, lung cancer forms 6.9 percent of all new cancer cases and 9.3 percent of all cancer-related deaths in both sexes. Nearly 90 percent of lung cancer is caused by smoking, though lung cancer can also occur in people who have never smoked. The risk of lung cancer rises with the length of time and the number of cigarettes you’ve smoked. If you stopped smoking, even after smoking for many years, you can significantly reduce your possibilities of acquiring lung cancer.
What are the symptoms of Thoracic Cancer?
Thoracic cancer does not produce any signs until they have developed, but some people with early lung cancer do have signs. If you go to your physician when you first see signs, your cancer might be diagnosed at an earlier stage, when treatment is more likely to be useful.
The most usual signs of thoracic cancer are:
- Chronic cough
- Continuous chest pain
- Brevity of breath
- Recurring lung infections, such as pneumonia or bronchitis
- Bloody or rust-colored sputum
- Swelling of the neck and face
- Pain and instability in the shoulder, arm or hand
Like many other cancers, thoracic cancer can cause:
- Loss of appetite and weight loss
- Pain in other parts of the body
- Bone fractures
Risk factors for Thoracic cancer
Some factors may increase your risk of Thoracic cancer. Some risk factors can be managed, for instance, by stopping smoking. And other factors can’t be controlled, such as your family history.
Risk factors for Thoracic cancer include:
• Smoking – Your risk of thoracic cancer rises with the number of cigarettes you smoke each day and the number of years you have smoked. Stopping at any age can significantly reduce your risk of growing thoracic cancer.
• Exposure to secondhand smoke – Even if you don’t smoke, your risk of thoracic cancer improves if you’re presented to secondhand smoke.
• Exposure to radon gas – Radon is created by the natural breakdown of uranium in soil, rock and water that ultimately becomes part of the air you breathe. Explosive levels of radon can grow in any building, including homes.
• Exposure to asbestos and other carcinogens – Workplace exposure to asbestos and other things known to cause cancer — such as arsenic, chromium and nickel — also can raise your risk of growing thoracic cancer, especially if you’re a smoker.
• Family history of thoracic cancer – People with a parent, sibling or child with thoracic cancer have an increased risk of the disease.
Colorectal Cancer Types
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If there’s a reason to think that you may have thoracic cancer, your doctor can order a number of tests to look for harmful cells and to rule out other situations.
Tests may include:
Imaging tests – An X-ray image of your lungs may reveal an abnormal mass or nodule. A CT scan can reveal tiny injuries in your lungs that might not be detected on an X-ray.
Sputum cytology – If you have a cough and are producing sputum, looking at the sputum under the microscope can sometimes show the presence of lung cancer cells.
Tissue sample (biopsy) – A sample of abnormal cells may be removed in a method called a biopsy.
Your surgeon can do a biopsy in a number of ways, including bronchoscopy, in which your physician examines unusual regions of your lungs using a glowing tube that’s passed down your throat and into your lungs; mediastinoscopy, in which a hole is made at the base of your neck and medical tools are entered behind your breastbone to take tissue samples from lymph nodes; and needle biopsy, in which your doctor uses X-ray or CT images to guide a probe through your chest wall and into the lung tissue to get different cells.
A biopsy sample may also be taken from lymph nodes or other regions where cancer has developed, such as your liver.
Careful analysis of your cancer cells in a lab will explain what kind of lung cancer you have. The results of advanced testing can tell your surgeon the specific aspects of your cells that can help determine your diagnosis and guide your treatment.
Cancer stages tell how far cancer has spread and help to guide treatment.
The chance of successful or corrective treatment is much higher when lung cancer is diagnosed and handled in the early stages before it grows. Because lung cancer doesn’t cause clear signs in the early stages, the analysis usually comes after it has spread.
- Non-small cell lung cancer has 4 main stages:
Stage 1: Cancer is detected in the lung, but it has not spread outside the lung.
Stage 2: Cancer is detected in the lung and nearby lymph nodes.
Stage 3: Cancer is in the lung and lymph nodes in the center of the chest.
Stage 3A: Cancer is detected in lymph nodes, but only on the same side of the chest where the cancer first began growing.
Stage 3B: Cancer has spread to lymph nodes on the reverse side of the chest or to lymph nodes above the collarbone.
Stage 4: Cancer has spread to both lungs, into the space around the lungs, or to different organs.
- Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) has 2 main stages :
In the limited stage, cancer is detected in only one lung or nearby lymph nodes on the same side of the chest.
The extensive stage means cancer has developed:
- throughout one lung
- to the opposite lung
- to lymph nodes on the opposite side
- to fluid around the lung
- to bone marrow
- to distant organs
At Profile, we offer the most advanced therapies for thoracic cancer performed by Thoracic cancer specialist Dr. Sumit Shaha who is extraordinary expertise in Cancer treatment. Your care team collaborates to discover the best method to fight your cancer based on the stage, location, hereditary profile.
Surgery is a vital phase of multi-modal treatment for Thoracic Cancer. It is useful when the cancer is limited to the lungs. Surgery is also used to take out extra cancerous tissue after chemotherapy or radiation treatment.
The most usual surgical procedures are:
- Wedge resection to remove a little section of lung that contains the tumor along with an edge of healthy tissue
- Segmental resection to remove a larger part of the lung, but not a whole lobe
- Lobectomy to remove the whole lobe of one lung
- Pneumonectomy to remove a whole lung
- Radiation Therapy
The treatment can be given to cure patients whose lung cancers are limited to the chest but cannot be removed surgically. Using the most advanced technologies, we can now produce powerful doses of radiation directly to your tumor with excellent precision. Highly trained medical physicists work in specialized teams with radiation oncologists to create an individualized radiation treatment program for every patient. Radiation therapists are present during each radiation method to ensure that the right dose of radiation is being delivered exactly where it is needed.
- Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT)
IMRT uses advanced computer programs to determine and deliver variable portions of radiation directly to the tumor from different perspectives. This technology targets the tumor while sparing the healthy muscle that surrounds it, enhancing your radiation oncologist’s ability to administer a lethal dose of radiation to a lung tumor and improving your possibility for a cure.
Some people with lung cancer may be treated with a specialized form of IMRT called Image-Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT). IGRT involves the use of advanced imaging tests to verify the condition of the patient and the location of the tumor before and during the performance of the treatment. Imaging tests play a crucial role in helping doctors to accurately plan and effectively deliver radiation therapy
- Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a treatment for non-small cell lung tumors that are tiny in volume and limited to the lung. It can also be used to treat lung metastases when malignant cells from another region of the body have spread to the lungs.
- Proton Therapy
Proton therapy is greatly beneficial for lung cancer treatment; our specialists can deliver highly effective and very precise doses of protons to the exact location of lung cancer. There is very minimal exposure to healthy lung tissue and bone marrow, resulting in a much minor chance of lung injury. Decreasing bone marrow illness may reduce treatment-related fatigue and, when needed, allow for the performance of more intensive chemotherapy during or after proton therapy.
In treating Thoracic Cancer, Chemotherapy is usually used after surgery to destroy any cancer cells that may remain. It can be used alone or mixed with radiation therapy. Chemotherapy may also be used before surgery to shorten cancers and make them easier to remove; it can also be used to reduce pain and other signs.
- Targeted Therapy
Targeted drug treatments focus on particular abnormalities present within cancer cells. By blocking these abnormalities, targeted drug therapy kills the cancer cells.
Many targeted therapy drugs are used to treat lung cancer, though most are reserved for people with advanced or chronic cancer.
Some targeted therapies only work in people whose cancer cells have certain genetic changes. Your cancer cells may be tested in a lab to understand if these drugs might help you. Targeted therapy is pushing the limits to significantly enhance patient outcomes and quality of life.
If you’ve had thoracic cancer surgery, your doctor can show you how to care for your surgical cut and let you know what things will help you recover.
To reduce skin irritation from radiation therapy, use loose clothes, preserve your chest from UV rays by avoiding the sun and using sunscreen, and use aloe Vera or vitamin E cream. Don’t use other skin creams unless your surgeon says they’re OK. Also, don’t let your skin get too warm or cold.
Whether treatment finishes or are ongoing, you will have regular appointments to monitor your health. During these checkups, you will normally have a physical examination and you may have chest x-rays, CT scans, and blood tests. You will also be able to discuss how you’re feeling and discuss any concerns you may have.
If your treatment has finished, follow-up appointments maybe every 3−6 months for the first couple of years and 6−12 months for the following 3 years.
When a follow-up appointment, many people see that they think more about cancer and may feel afraid. Talk to our treatment team or call us if you are getting it difficult to handle this stress.
Between appointments, let your doctor know immediately about any new health problems or changes in signs.
Thoracic cancer is the most silent killer cancer in India. Early diagnosis can increase the chances of survival
Only 15 percent of lung cancers are diagnosed at an early or limited stage, where the 5-year survival rate is about 54%.
Around 70% of lung cancer patients will survive for at least a year if diagnosed at the earliest stage.
For further tumors developed to other organs, i.e. advanced stage/stage IV, the five-year survival rate drops to only 4 percent.
At Prolife Cancer Centre, your care for thoracic cancer is personalized. Your cancer care team, will communicate closely and work together, and with you, to customize your care, including the most advanced therapies with the least impact on your body.
We offer new strategies to maintain dental and oral health treatment. Our highly specialized speech pathologists and therapists are among the most experienced in the nation, particularly in the newest methods of voice restoration and speech.
And at Prolife Cancer Centre, you’re surrounded by the strength of the India’s largest and most experienced comprehensive cancer center, which has all the services needed to treat the whole person – not just the disease.